For example, 7th grade students can be offered a text from textbook B as a diagnostic dictation.
In advance, all the proposed answers are grouped according to the sources of cognitive interest: the content of the subject – answers 1, 2, 3,; the nature of cognitive activity – answers 4, 5, 7, 9; the nature of the relationship between teacher and students in the learning process – answers 8, 9, 10.
Answers 11 and 12 are proposed because the factors of “difficulty” and “ease” of learning often give students an important role in shaping their attitude to the subjects.
Within each factor, students’ interest in the subject can also be differentiated. If in the first group of answers they choose answer 1, then their interest in the history of conditioning by the factual side of the subject; answer 2 – they are worried about a moral problem; 3 – theoretical content.
Interest in history in answer 4 is due to the commitment to the methods of cognitive activity at the reproducing level, in answer 5 – at the transforming; when answering b – on the creative search; when answering “- on creatively problematic.
In answer 6, the source of interest is the nature of the relationship with the subject teacher; with the answer 9 – relations in the middle of the class team; when answering 1- out of learning factors.
The ideal version of the questionnaire will be an even distribution of answers in all directions. The low level of cognitive interest in history, its situational nature is eloquently evidenced by a set of answers 1, 4, 11. The same conclusion can be made if history as an interesting subject is among the first, and as necessary – present only in the second half of the list, in addition students do not express a desire to do it in addition.
The questionnaire can be repeated at the end of the school year and compare not only the changes in the rating of the subject, but also the nature of student motivation.
At the beginning of the new school year, students answer the question: “Why am I studying history?” “Why in the humanities class?” “Why do I expect history lessons this year?” etc. demonstrate certain nature of their attitude to the subject. This is clearly evidenced by the quality of students’ design of their workbooks, selection of aphorisms about history, the creation of a catalog “My Historical Library” performed as the first homework.
The tasks on the association: “history is …” “history – to know, understand and …” – show how close or distant the content of the subject is for students.
At the end of school quarters and six months, children can answer the questions of a new questionnaire, which will help the teacher to objectively assess the situation in the classroom, adjust their work to deepen students’ cognitive interest in the subject:
What is the place of history in your subjects this school year? What lessons / topics of this quarter / semester do you remember the most? Why: What cognitive / homework assignments in history did you perform with special desire? Why? What books (movies, plays, TV shows) on a historical topic have you read (watched) during this time? What do you suggest to make history lessons more interesting in the new quarter?
Determining the level of development of cognitive abilities to study history
Individual features of cognitive processes, age changes and purposeful achievement of learning outcomes clearly diagnose special historical dictations that can be conducted at the beginning and end of the school year. Original tests are selected for them: from the history of the studied country (period), which differ in the originality of the author’s style. Historical information should be presented in a holistic but compact way; the ratio of factual and theoretical provisions in the content of dictation depends on the students. The volume of the text corresponds to the volume of written works on the language in these classrooms (in the range of 110-150).
For example, 7th grade students can be offered a text from V. Vlasov’s textbook “History of Ukraine” as a diagnostic dictation.
Danylo Romanovych, whom he ruled in the 13th century, from a cohort of those glorious sons of Ukraine over whom time has no power. A wise politician, a talented diplomat, a brilliant military leader, Danylo Halytsky gained a well-deserved honor … The chronicler reports about him as follows: “King Danylo was a good, brave, wise prince who built many gardens and built churches and decorated them with various ornaments “. …
At Danylo’s initiative, several new cities were founded, including Lviv, named after Lev, the prince’s eldest vulture, and a new capital, Kholm. Danilo took care of the construction of fortresses and fortifications topic for narrative essay throughout the country, built castles, churches and monasteries, contributed to the development of culture.
The chronicler is also asked about the prince’s military exploits, the Galician scribe highly appreciates the military skill of Daniel. The chronicle recounts the prince’s appeals to the army, in which he urged soldiers to take care of their dignity and honor of the homeland. Danilo made great efforts to unite the Russian lands to repel foreign oppressors, showing his neighbors the possibility of a successful fight against the Mongols.
Undoubtedly, Danylo’s merit is his tireless activity aimed at strengthening the unity of the Galician-Volyn state, raising its international prestige. Historian Natalia Polonska-Vasylenko wrote: “… The Galicia-Volyn state took an honorable place among European states. Its cities surprised, its army reached Kalisz and Olomouc, its military tactics gained fame. Despite close ties with Western Europe, culture Laws. The religion of the Galician_Volyn principality remained Ukrainian “.
First, students listened to the entire text and asked clarifying questions 9 unfamiliar words. Figures were not recorded). Then the teacher re-read the story in paragraphs, and students tried to reproduce it from memory as close as possible to the original.
Ideally, they should have named: 3 proper names (Danylo Halytsky, Lev, Natalia Polonska-Vasylenko); 7 geographical names (Galicia-Volyn state. Ukraine. Lviv, Kholm, Kalisz. Western Europe); 1 chronological message (XIII century); 2 words – archaisms (brave, gardens). 13 units of historical information that characterize the depth and strength of auditory and semantic memory, verbal perception. Figurative thinking, reproductive imagination, random attention.
A sensitive ear would catch in this text a special brightness, imagery, expressiveness of the author’s story, achieved through metaphors, comparisons, direct speech. Verbs of imperfect form, reinforcing constructions. More or less complete reproduction of this information indicates a significant level of development of students’ figurative perception and imagination, as well as figurative memory.
Some theoretical information is woven into the outline of the story: about the significance of Danylo Halytsky’s activity, about preserving the identity of the state, about the international authority of the Halych-Volyn principality. The child is able to logically comprehend educational information, will not miss this information.
In total, the text contained 23 information diagnostic units.
The analysis of the works showed the individual degree of readiness of each student to perceive and comprehend the story. From 8 to 21 information units were reproduced in student dictations. Students did not memorize homogeneous information, presented by simple enumeration, distorted geographical names, simplified the language of presentation, long complex sentences were divided into short parts; omitted artistic techniques of storytelling. They did not pay attention to the definition of theoretical units of content.
Depending on the goal set by the teacher, students may be offered a dictation with any potential for verification (quantity and quality of content units. 0. Diagnosing dictation helps the teacher to pay attention in time to the difficulties in perceiving and understanding the historical material that students have. Consciously avoid such moments in the presentation and selection of educational texts, apply special tasks for the development of cognitive processes, differentiate the teaching of history, interest each student in the opportunity to improve their results.
Forms and methods of work to strengthen students’ cognitive interest in history.
If we take as a basis the change of personal characteristics of students, then in my work, in the direction of strengthening the cognitive interest of students in history, first of all I take into account that primary and high school students have completely different training based on their age.
The level of development of the child’s personality in primary school shows – the child does not have their own views, but can already be responsible for educational activities, which involves in the field of teaching goal: to help the child not lose interest in learning, how to give him the most in terms of development, as a student, provide examples of good deeds, as well as ideas that need to be condemned, ie worldview, human values.
In the senior classes a new level of personal development, when the competencies of students are formed, their more conscious attitude to learning, attempts to find and develop their interests, there is a choice of future profession. All this requires creating learning situations for students, solving which it will be important for them to have their own point of view, to choose and be able to defend it, to be tolerant of the opponent, to be able to behave in a civilized way in any situation.
I use various forms of organizing my activities as a teacher: seminars, debates, role-playing games.
Forms and methods of working with students may not be the same. If we want to maintain cognitive interest. In my work I highlight the following areas:
1. The use of problem-based tasks.
a) For example: history of Ukraine, 7th grade. Topic: “The beginning of the reign of Prince Vladimir. The establishment of Christianity as the state religion.”
“According to the legend, Prince Vladimir, choosing the state religion for Russia from among different religions, chose Orthodoxy. Name the reasons for this choice of the prince. Arrange them according to the degree of importance:.
b) “In 988, Prince Vladimir and his wife in Kiev converted to Christianity.
Will this phenomenon spread to other territories of states? Why? How fast was this process supposed to take place and why? What will hinder and what will contribute to the spread of Christianity? What social segments of the population of Kievan Rus were interested in the spread of the new religion (Christianity)?
c) Topic: “The social system of Kievan Rus in the IX-X centuries.”