Human economic activity has significantly worsened the natural state of the sea.

Human economic activity has significantly worsened the natural state of the sea.

In the sea under the influence of winds and inflow of river waters there is a circular current, directed counterclockwise.

In the Sea of ​​Azov, with a relatively simple bottom relief with uniform depths and a peculiar salinity, the species composition of flora and fauna is poorer than in the Black Sea, but biomass productivity is extremely high.

Diamond algae, brown, red, green algae, seaweed, and microalgae predominate among the plants.

The animal world has about 400 species – from unicellular to fish and mammals. The latter are represented in the Sea of ​​Azov by one species of dolphins – Azov. Tulk, anchovies, bulls, herring, pike perch, mullet, flounder, sturgeon and others are of industrial importance. Many freshwater fish species, as well as fish from the Black Sea come here to spawn. Artificial spawning grounds and fish farms are being set up to reproduce and expand the species composition of fish resources, especially sturgeon.

A kind of unique bay is Sivash. Separated from the sea by a narrow Arabian Arrow and connected by a small Strait of Genichesk, it feeds on the waters of the Sea of ​​Azov. Due to intense evaporation, the water in the bay is very salty (average 60 ‰) and often reaches a state of brine (200 ‰). In the dry season, the surface of the estuaries sparkles with a salt crust, like an ice rink with artificial ice.

The bottom of Azov is promising for oil and natural gas production.

The ability of the sea to strengthen and improve human health is invaluable. Warm and gentle sea, bright and gentle sun, soaked in the scents of herbs and sea moisture, unique therapeutic muds encourage thousands of buy a compare and contrast essay now people here every year. A large number of recreation centers and sanatoriums are concentrated on the Azov coast of Arabatskaya Strelka, in the area of ​​Berdyansk – a large mud resort.

Human economic activity has significantly worsened the natural state of the sea. Emissions of industrial effluents, municipal sewerage networks, livestock complexes, mineral fertilizers and pesticides washed away from the fields, etc., cause great damage. This leads to a reduction in the species composition of the organic world of the sea, as well as the spread of bacteria that cause disease in humans.

The Sea of ​​Azov had extremely favorable conditions for the development of fish fauna due to good warming, lighting, mixing of waters, as well as the inflow of significant amounts of fresh water. River waters not only did not reduce, but also brought with them 300 thousand tons of various nutrients needed for plankton, which feeds on fish.

After the construction of hydraulic complexes on the Kuban and Don rivers, most of the water began to be spent on irrigation, and therefore, the inflow of fresh water into the sea decreased. The water in the Sea of ​​Azov becomes saltier due to the increase in the inflow of water from the Black Sea (previously the average salinity of Azov waters was 11 ().

This has led to a deterioration of the oxygen regime, a reduction in the feed base for fish, worsened conditions for the reproduction of herring, sturgeon, and so on. Organisms that are accustomed to less salinity, retreat to the Taganrog Bay and decrease in number.

On the other hand, Black Sea organisms are beginning to penetrate the sea and spread more widely. Increasing the inflow of Black Sea water into the bottom layers reduces the possibilities for mixing and, thus, worsens the oxygen regime near the bottom. This leads to the expansion of freezing areas and a significant decline in stocks of valuable commercial fish.


1. Andreev AG, Guk VI New data on the morphology and neotectonics of the Podolsk reef zone // Materials on geology, hydrogeology and geochemistry of Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Altai and Transbaikalia. – 1970. – No. 6. – P. 27-35.

2. Vyrzhikovsky RR A new ridge of Sarmatian reef limestones in Podolia (geological research in the valley of the Kamenka River in 1926) // Visnyk Ukr. geol. Committee, 1928. – Issue. II.

3. Gerenchuk KI Podolsk toltra (geomorphological essay) // Izv. VGO, 1949. – T. 81. – Vyp. 5. – P. 530-536.

4. Gerenchuk KI Geomorphology of Podolia // Scientist. zap. Chernivtsi University, ser. geol. -geogr. Science. – 1950. – T. 8. – Vyp. 2. – P. 89-111.

5. Hofstein ID Neotectonics of Western Volyn-Podolia. – K.: Nauk, Dumka, 1979. –156 p.


Recreational use of forest anthropogenic landscapes of Ternopil region. Abstract

Forest anthropogenic landscapes of Ternopil region are one of the important factors that contribute to the development of various types of recreational activities. As noted by GI Denisyk (1998), in contrast to other anthropogenic landscapes, forests during long-term and diverse economic development, mostly not formed, but destroyed

Forest landscapes of Ternopil region, as well as other regions of the Right Bank of Ukraine, are represented by three subclasses:

conditionally natural, derivative, silvicultural.

Forest landscapes cover an area of ​​195.9 thousand hectares and are represented by forests of groups I (44.6%) and II (55.4%). In addition to the fact that Group II forests play an important role in economic development, they, together with Group I forests, perform sanitary-hygienic, water-regulating, aesthetic and other functions. Thus, we can say that almost all forest landscapes of the region, except for nature reserves, are multifunctional.

Forest parks, urban forests and forest park parts of forests that belong to the forest subclass perform the best recreational functions. Thus, 6.3 thousand hectares of forest parks are most intensively used for recreation, the main part of which is concentrated in the central part of the region (3.8 thousand hectares).

Recreational forests are one of the components of natural recreational resources, which are an integral part of forest ecosystems, designed to meet the needs of the population in treatment, recreation and tourism.

The forest landscapes of the region are unevenly distributed due to their irrational use in recent decades and insufficient reforestation work. The minimum forest cover is observed in the central and eastern parts of the region – 5.0 … 7.5%, and the maximum in the western, northern, southern – 15 … 33%. The average forest cover of the region is 14.1%.

Recreational functions around cities and settlements are performed by forest plantations, the area of ​​which in the region has slightly increased and is – 3736.5 hectares. They perform aesthetic and sanitary functions. However, a number of settlements (Pidhaytsi, Kozova, Lanivtsi, Husiatyn, Pidvolochysk, Shumsk) do not have green zones.

The most common forest formation in Ternopil region is oak-hornbeam forests (chest). Occasionally there are forests of oak and rock. Beech, pine and floodplain forests are also widespread in the region. Fresh and moist oak groves occupy 75 … 85% in the region, they mainly grow on river slopes, apical hills and ridges, as well as on interfluves. These forest landscapes are best suited for hiking, trekking, picking mushrooms and berries.

The most favorable for recreation are pine-oak, oak, linden, birch and maple forests that grow on dry, fresh and moist soils [1]; also pine favorable, birch and oak, growing on well- and medium-drained soils, lakeside, flat and remote from water bodies.

In determining the aesthetic value of forest landscapes, the composition of species, age, quality and completeness of plantations are taken into account. The most picturesque are the forests that attract at all times of the year: pure high-quality forests and mixed forests with a significant proportion of deciduous species, as well as pines and spruces, seasonally picturesque – deciduous forests … [4].

Forest landscapes of the Ternopil region (according to the method of VB Nefedova and others, 1980) can be attributed to the most picturesque (forests in the northern part) and seasonally picturesque. Only some forests along the floodplains of the river, represented by alder and aspen, are not picturesque. Regarding the psycho-emotional impact on people (according to the works of MM Tyulpanov, 1975), the forests of this area are characterized by both calming and stimulating effect.

Virtually all forest landscapes suitable for recreation and health are recreational. Their use is due to the presence of unique natural complexes, rich in flora and fauna, a large number of reservoirs, mineral healing springs, as well as the influence of a number of socio-economic and medical-biological factors.

The combination of deciduous and coniferous species in forest landscapes helps to increase the recreational value of forests. Conifers, namely Scots pine, spruce, and hardwood – pedunculate oak, maple and others are among the leading landscape species. The increase in productivity and aesthetic appearance of forests is influenced by introducers – European larch, Japanese larch, black walnut, red oak, Douglas fir, Siberian larch, Weymouth pine, Banks pine and others. The vast majority of wood species in the region in terms of aesthetic properties belong to the first class with high decorative qualities: pine, larch, oak, birch, maple, etc.

Recreational functions of forest landscapes are also determined by sanitary and hygienic features, which largely depend on the phytoncide properties of green areas. The highest phytoncide is characterized by coniferous (pine) forests, which have twice less bacteria than mixed. All other forests of the region are characterized by high phytoncide.

In forest landscapes, the content of harmful gases, radioactive substances and dust in the air decreases. The noise-reducing ability is well expressed in such species as sharp-leaved maple, large-leaved linden, poplar, pedunculate oak, etc.

The diversity of rock composition in the forests of the region has a positive effect on the development of recreational forest use. Such forest plantations have sanitary and hygienic, aesthetic, medical and psychological functions, they are characterized by high resistance to recreational loads. The forests of the region have an increased emotional impact on people, caused by the combination of colors of different elements of the landscape.

The age structure of forest plantations in the region is not entirely favorable for economic needs, but has a beneficial effect on the human body, reducing the incidence of cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. The average age of forest stands is about 50 years.

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